Tema : Përfaqësimi i grupeve të interesit në politikat publike Topic : Functioning of the tripartite institution in public policies

, par Merita Xhumari

I. Why tripartite institution need to be established in social policy after 1990s ?

1. Influence of external environments through ILO, World Bank, etc.
2. Transformation of the social system in different countries in transition, Czech Model
3. Transformation of the democratic political system is asking for a greater participation of all social partners in the policy process. The aim is that policy to be open and transparent, to have much social support that to be realised successfully in the practice.
4. The new ideology or values putting individuals in an active position, reducing its dependency from the state, increasing their initiative, personal autonomy, freedom of choices and social justice. The individual is treated as a subject of policy process, not only as an object of social policy.
5. The market economy requires for new rules of relations between market, state and individuals. To put all these interest together, profitability, competitiveness, social order, labour and consumer interests, is really very difficult.

II. Why tripartite institution is a public problem ?

"Tripartite institution" means institutional arrangements for consultation and/or negotiation between representatives of workers, employers and governments in the formulation of public policy on social and economic issues. (ILO Definition).

The tripartite institution is necessary because it comprises the public interest. The society provides control to the market and to the role of authorities toward labour relations, as well as social cohesion. Why ?

1. Because of the informal economy is extended aiming to have much profits from the labour force. To argue this factor we may use many methods : statistical description on informal economy, statistics on the labour force and its changes comparing with the changes in the unemployment, statistics of the taxes agencies and those of the social insurance agencies supplemented with surveys on the private sector.
2. Because of the financial difficulties or not well management’s in economy, the Governments will try to put on the shoulders of the labour force through different policy instruments such as : the system of taxation, social insurance contribution, the wage system, liberalisation of the prices, etc.. Statistical analysis on the inferential of those indicators and survey on the state as well as on the private sector relating the minimum wage, the labour contract, social protection, social insurance.

III. What does it mean to function the tripartite institution ?

It means negotiation between social partners such as : employees, employers and the Government. The negotiations for a broad range of issues such as : the fair relationships between the employer and the employee, (defined in the contract of labour, minimum wage to provide the minimum living standards, social and health insurance, labour safety, etc.) ; participation in the problem definition and the decision- making process from all social partners ; participation in the evaluation of the policy products, etc. In generally, it means to have the equal chance and position in the policy formation process.

IV. How the representation of the interested groups in policy process could be realised ?

1. Alternatives may be different in their components. From the political point of view, it will be decided to approve the necessary legislation framework to institutionalise the tripartite.
2. If this legislation exist, to enforce its application in the practice through different ways. To negotiate with Government for an open policy, for transparency and broader participation in decision making process.
3. From the organisational structure, it is necessary to create the functional structures in state, public, and private organisations to leave space for representation of the interested groups. It means to create leading councils with the representatives from all social partners and to give them the necessary time to be informed for the problem definition and alternatives for problem solution, to enable them for active participation in the policy process.
4. From the economic and human resources point of view, all social partners need to develop their institutional capacities to enter into the new social roles. It means to increase their human resource through a process of increasing their professional level and their means of public information, their structures spreading over all country and in all public policy institutions.
5. Development the institutional network in professional organizations, like Order of Physicians, in sectorial field like the bussines organizations in construction, in local and national level like the trade unions of miners, and even broader like the organization of the Farmacist Without Borders.
6. Active participation through systematic contacts, providing reliable information and continuously exchanging and sharing this information, transparency with their interested groups and high responsibility for the new social roles.

Table 1. Different Alternatives /Components in Developing the Tripartite Institution

To create, to modify,
to abolish
To create, to modify,
to abolish
To create, to modify,
to abolish
To create, to modify,
to abolish
To create, to modify,
to abolish

Legal adjustment

In the Constitution
In the Labour Code In the
Social & Health Security Acts In the
Government Decisions In the
Regulations, Procedures, Statutes

Institutions to enforce law

State institutions
Public Administration

Institutional Network
(the main actors)


Developing institutional
- the structure
- management
- resources
(economic, human) - the structure
- management
- resources
(economic, human) - the structure
- management
- resources
(economic, human) - the structure
- management
- resources
(economic, human) - the structure
- management
- resources
(economic, human)

exchange information
mutual responsibilities